SUMMARY Recommendations for a prudent diet include the following:

A diet high in fruits and vegetables is supported by the health benefits of reduced cardiovascular risk.  

Supplement use, most often in the form of a multivitamin, provides folate that is highly bioavailable, and it is supported by evidence for several chronic conditions.  

Specific supplements of vitamin E for the primary prevention of CHD do not appear to be of benefit.  High doseVitamin E supplementation (> 400 IU/day) may be associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. 

Calcium supplements, while commonly used to prevent loss of bone density among older women and men, may have adverse effects in men; more data are required to evaluate the risk-benefit equation.  

Trans fatty acids and saturated fats should be avoided and replaced with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.  

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that patients be counseled to limit dietary fat intake (particularly saturated fat) and cholesterol; maintain caloric balance; and increase the intake of foods containing fiber. They concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against counseling to reduce sodium intake, or to decrease the dietary intake of iron, beta-carotene, or other antioxidants to improve health outcomes. 

Patient instructions 

Eat a healthy diet with a lot of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains and a limited amount of red meat.  

Get at least five servings of fruits and vegetables every day. More is even better. Tips for achieving this goal include: 

Cut down on bad fats (trans fatty acids and saturated fats) and consume good fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat like olive oil and canola oil). Tips for achieving this goal include:

Get enough folate every day (400 micrograms per day). Tips for achieving this goal include:

Avoid excessive alcohol intake. Tips for achieving this goal include: